HIV VIRUS - HIV AND HIV VIRUS INFO
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HIV VIRUS - THE WORD IS WRONG AS HIV IS ENOUGH- HIV MEANS THE VIRUS WHICH IS CALLED HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
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HIV VIRUS- HIV virus is a retro virus. Like all viruses, HIV cannot grow or reproduce on its own. In order to make new copies of itself it must infect the cells of a living organism. Outside of a T cell HIV will be like spherical particles - virions- with spiked surface.
USUAL Details of HIV- The Virus-
Size of HIV is 180 billionths of a Meter in diameter. Means as following.Almost 0.1 microns in size is HIV's size.
And HIV will be about 4 millionths of an inch in scale.
If compare with other pathogens HIV is about About 1/20 th of an E coli bacterium
If compare to other small human objects HIV is 1/17 th of a WBC or CD4 cell.
HIV is very small and very difficult to be seen in microscope. You need electron microscope for seeing them clearly. HIV is clear in the Electron Microscope.
There is a coat made of fatty acids around HIV particles-the viral envelope -or membrane. with 72 little spikes, which are formed from the proteins gp120 and gp41. Just below the viral membrane is a layer called the matrix, which is made from the protein P17.
The HIV viral core (or capsid) is usually bullet-shaped and is made from the protein P24. Inside the core are three enzymes required for HIV replication called reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease. Also held within the core is HIV's genetic material, which consists of two identical strands of RNA.
SOME MORE DETAILS -
HIV (Virus) and entry
HIV can only replicate (make new copies of itself) inside human cells. The process typically begins when a virus particle bumps into a cell that carries on its surface a special protein called CD4. The spikes on the surface of the virus particle stick to the CD4 and allow the viral envelope to fuse with the cell membrane. The contents of the HIV particle are then released into the cell, leaving the envelope behind.
Once inside the cell, the HIV enzyme reverse transciptase converts the viral RNA into DNA, which is compatible with human genetic material. This DNA is transported to the cell's nucleus, where it is spliced into the human DNA by the HIV enzyme integrase. Once integrated, the HIV DNA is known as provirus.
This electron microscope photo shows
newly formed HIV particles budding
from a human cell.
HIV provirus may lie dormant within a cell for a long time. But when the cell becomes activated, it treats HIV genes in much the same way as human genes. First it converts them into messenger RNA (using human enzymes). Then the messenger RNA is transported outside the nucleus, and is used as a blueprint for producing new HIV proteins and enzymes.
Among the strands of messenger RNA produced by the cell are complete copies of HIV genetic material. These gather together with newly made HIV proteins and enzymes to form new viral particles, which are then released from the cell. The enzyme protease plays a vital role at this stage of the HIV life cycle by chopping up long strands of protein into smaller pieces, which are used to construct mature viral cores.
The newly matured HIV particles are ready to infect another cell and begin the replication process all over again. In this way the virus quickly spreads through the human body. And once a person is infected, they can pass HIV on to others in their bodily fluids.
(Courtesy - avert.org )
HIV- THE IMAGES OF THE HIV (THE VIRUS )
|HIV A Menace||HIV Inside View||HIV In Blood|
HIV AND SOME SECRETS-
UK scientists have cracked one of the key biological processes used by viruses such as HIV and SARS when they replicate according to a paper published in the journal Nature tomorrow (11 May). Viruses are able to interfere with the host cell processes that our bodies use to replicate cells, and protein synthesis is often one of their targets. For the first time, researchers at the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford have witnessed virus-induced "frameshifting" in action and have been able to identify the crucial role of particular elements.
The research, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Medical Research Council (MRC), The Royal Society and The Wellcome Trust, brings us another step closer to understanding the fundamental workings of these devastating viruses.
The scientists have revealed the workings of the process known as 'ribosomal frameshifting' that forces a mis-reading of the genetic code during protein synthesis. The correct expression of most genes depends upon accurate translation of the 'frame' of the genetic code, which has a three nucleotide periodicity. Viruses such as HIV and SARS bring into the cell a special signal that forces the ribosome to back up by one nucleotide, pushing it into another 'frame' and allowing synthesis of different viral proteins. These are exploited by viruses and help them to survive and multiply.
The British researchers successfully imaged frameshifting in action and for the first time observed how a virus encoded element called an RNA pseudoknot interferes with the translation of the genetic code to allow viruses like HIV and SARS to express their own enzymes of replication.
Dr Ian Brierley, the project leader at the University of Cambridge, said: "This collaborative project was set up with Dr Robert Gilbert's team in Oxford to investigate the structure of a frameshifting ribosome using electron microscopy. The images we obtained give us an insight into how a virus-encoded RNA pseudoknot can induce frameshifting and may be useful in designing new ways to combat virus pathogens that use this process."
Professor Julia Goodfellow, Chief Executive of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, which was one of the main funders, said: "This is exciting and valuable research and demonstrates clearly why investment in fundamental science is so important. The treatments and therapies that we now take for granted are based on decades of work by scientists furthering our understanding of natural processes. The work to explore fundamental biology today is laying the foundation for potential medical applications over the next twenty years."
( Courtesy- sciencedaily.com )
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